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Category: Angiogenesis and Neovascularization
Animals used for research:   Rat  

Animal species

Streptozotocin (STZ) is a N-nitro derivative of glucosamine that is toxic to the insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells. STZ-induced diabetic retinopathy model represents a popular and highly reproducible preclinical model to mimic type I diabetes mellitus in humans. However, this model mimics only very early phase of diabetic retinopathy without prominent vascular changes in the retina.

Indications: Type I Diabetes


Animal species


Method of induction

Injection of streptozotocin

Follow-up period

Up to 12 months

Route of compound administration

Topical (e.g. eye drops), intravitreal injection, systemic

  1. In vivo imaging:
    • fundoscopy;
    • fluorescein angiography;
    • optical coherence tomography (OCT);
    • vitreofluorophotometry.
  2. In vivo functional assessment
  3. Morphological assessment
  4. Molecular biology (ELISA, Western blotting, qPCR)
Please contact us, if you would like to receive more information:


Macroglial activation in STZ-induced rat retina (glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining)

The glial fibrillary acidic protein staining in the rat retinal wholemounts


  1. Ragauskas S, Kielczewski E, Vance J, Kaja S, Kalesnykas G. In Vivo Multimodal Imaging and Analysis of Mouse Laser-Induced Choroidal Neovascularization Model. J Vis Exp (2018). PubMed PMID: 29443029
  2. Kinnunen K, Heinonen SE, Kalesnykas G, Laidinen S, Uusitalo-Järvinen H, Uusitalo H, Ylä-Herttuala S. LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mice with insulin-like growth factor II overexpression reveal a novel form of retinopathy with photoreceptor atrophy and altered morphology of the retina. Mol Vis. (2013). 19:1723-33. PubMed PMID: 23922490
  3. Viita H, Kinnunen K, Eriksson E, Lähteenvuo J, Babu M, Kalesnykas G, Heikura T, Laidinen S, Takalo T, Ylä-Herttuala S. Intravitreal adenoviral 15-lipoxygenase-1 gene transfer prevents vascular endothelial growth factor A-induced neovascularization in rabbit eyes. Hum Gene Ther (2009).1679-86. PubMed PMID: 19694557.
  4. Kinnunen K, Kalesnykas G, Mähönen AJ, Laidinen S, Holma L, Heikura T, Airenne K, Uusitalo H, Ylä-Herttuala S. Baculovirus is an efficient vector for the transduction of the eye: comparison of baculovirus- and adenovirus-mediated intravitreal vascular endothelial growth factor D gene transfer in the rabbit eye. J Gene Med (2009). 11:382-9. PubMed PMID: 19263462.


  • Kern TS, Miller CM, Tang J, Du Y, Ball SL, Berti-Matera L. Comparison of three strains of diabetic rats with respect to the rate at which retinopathy and tactile allodynia develop. Mol Vis. 2010 Aug 15;16:1629-39. PubMed PMID: 20806092.


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