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Category: Inflammation
Animals used for research:   Mouse  

Dry-eye disease is induced in mice by exposure to a controlled desiccating environment (SiccaSystemTM, K&P Scientific LLC, Oak Park, IL) and transdermal scopolamine administration (Novartis, Basel, Switzerland).1,2 We offer validated  prophylactic and therapeutic paradigms of the experimental study design.


Animal species


Method of induction

Desiccating stress/ scopolamine

Follow-up period

Typically 2 – 3 weeks

Route of compound administration

Topical, systemic

  • Tear volume measurement;
  • Corneal fluorescein staining;
  • Lacrimal gland pathology;
  • Quantification of conjunctival goblet cells;
  • Corneal morphology.
Please contact us, if you would like to receive more information:


Representative Example of Quantification of Corneal Surface Damage and Inflammation

We recommend using Restasis® (0.05% ophthalmic cyclosporine emulsion) as reference compound that provides benchmark values for comparison of the efficacy of test compounds. Representative images from an untreated mouse with dry-eye disease induction is shown on the left. Restasis® significantly reduces dry-eye induced corneal surface damage compared to the untreated eye. Data are shown as median interquartile range.


  1. Ziniauskaite A, Ragauskas A, Hakkarainen J, Rich C, Baumgartner R, Kalesnykas G, Albers D, and Kaja S. Efficacy of trabodenoson in a mouse keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) model for dry-eye syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2018. Accepted for publication.
  2. Kaja S, Ragauskas S, Ziniauskaite A, Haapaniemi AM, Hakkarainen JJ, Martiskainen H, Kalesnykas G. Use of approved drugs for dry-eye disease as reference compounds in the SiccaSystemTM standardized murine desiccating stress model. ARVO 2018 poster presentation.


  1. Dursun D, Wang M, Monroy D, Li DQ, Lokeshwar BL, Stern ME, Pflugfelder SC. A mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Mar;43(3):632-8. PubMed PMID: 11867577.
  2. Arumugham R, Somasekhar G, Upadhyay AK, Kalesnykas G, Kaja S, Jain S. Pre-clinical efficacy of OCU300 nano emulsion for the treatment of ocular graft versus host disease. ARVO 2018, programme #3287.


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